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Тантрическая тхеравада: эссе с обзором работ, посвященных традиции йогавачара

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Notes

(1) Given the evidence of the Saddavimala and description of the fonnation of mantra and yantra in the La Guirlande (on both of which, see below), it seems possible to me that this treatment of the substitute as the original is an extension of the rules of sandhi from Pali grammar (or is justified through them), on which see the discussion of La Guirlande, below.

(2) The Abhidhamma Pitaka is that section of the canon that presents Theravlida doctrine shorn of the narrative frameworks in which it is embedded in the Sutta Pitaka. Some of the contents result from systematisation of sutta material, some from developments necessitated, or at least driven, by that systematisation.

(3) I am aware of only two introductory books on Buddhism that take Bizot’s work into account. See my discussion of Skilton 1994 and Strong 1995 below. On the lack of knowledge of his work even on the part of researchers in the same field, see my discussion ofMettanando 1999, below.

(4) I am grateful to Jacqueline Filliozat for facilitating my visit to EFEO and to Francois Lagirarde for sending me a copy of La purere.

(5) The typical price ofthe publications discussed here is about 200FF.

(6) No ISBN given.

(7) Avant-propos I-IV.

(8) See p.2 note 1. See also the discussion ofthis event in Becchetti.

(9) It should not be assumed that the influence of Protestant Christianity lies behind this use of scripture to establish orthodoxy. The practice has recurred throughout the history of Buddhism in many countries, and many such occurrences predate European and American contact with Asia.

(10) pp. 4ff.

(11) Indeed a number of passages are found almost verbatim in later publications, when Bizot realised the publication of material already familiar to him at the time of writing this first book.

(12) Bizot’s own attempts to explain the apparently incongruent 18 century juxtaposition of Mahlivihara with apparently non-Mahaviharin practices given in Le Chemin (1992: 42ff.) seem unnecessary to me if one bears in mind the distinction I am making here.

(13) p.21.

(14) p.22.

(15) pp.25-26. 1 have critically examined the individual steps of this proposed association elsewhere (1999).

(16) pp.43ff.

(17) For Bizot’s interpretation of this title, see below. Also on this text, see Lagirarde 1994.

(18) pp.50-73.

(19) pp.74- 110.

(20) pp.111-146.

(21) p.117.

(22) pp.125ff.

(23) Leclere 1899.

(24) Bizot 1981: 224-225.

(25) pp. 235-239.

(26) p.240 with note 1.

(27) pp.27ff. I have come across drawings that appear to be simplified plans of these enclosures on the boards of Sri Lankan yogavacara manuscripts, which suggests that pmisukii/ rituals may have been practised in Sri Lanka too.

(28) On the significance of these in the yoglivacara tradition, see the discussion of Bizot’s

Ramaker and Le Chemin below.

(29) pp.85-91.

(30) pp. 104-106.

(31) Terwiel 1979, reprint 1994: pp.69ff.

(32) Bizot pA3.

(33) Chapter Three.

(34) von Hinuber 1987, English translation and update 1994. Augmenting this, see Kieffer Pulz 1993. Expanding on it to show that the wording of the precepts as well as the refuges were restricted to a particular formula by Buddhaghosa, see Crosby 2000.

(35) Chapter Five.

(36) pp.l34-138. .

(37) pp.9-12.

(38) Bechert p.10 cites the following work describing the practice: Pra Bhavana-Kosolthera, Basic Meditation Practice by Vijja Dhammakaya Approach, based on the general teaching of the Yen. Chao Khun Pra Mongkol-Thepmuni, Bangkok 2527 B.E.).

(39) p.26.

(40) p.40.

(41) pp. 16-21.

(42) pp.30-33. Pou 1979, 1982.

(43) pp.33-35.

(44) pp.20-25.

(45) pp.62-63.

(46) ppA2-6L

(47) pp.42-43.

(48) p.47.

(49) p.51. .

(50) pp.46-48.

(51) E.g. in the interpretation of the role of the twins as namarupa, p.59.

(52) Bizot 1989: 46.

(53) A further work on Mi Chak’s Ramaker by Olivier de Bemon and Bizot is advertised as forthcoming 1995, as the 3rd of the EFEO series Textes bouddhiques du Cambodge in the final pages of La guirlande (1994) but is not listed in the publications of EFEO in Le purete (1996). I have not been able to get hold of a copy of this work, nor do I know if it has already been published.

(54) On the rationale for this new series, see TBC in the list of abbreviations below.

(55) The manuscripts are described pp. 63-70.

(56) Bizot 1992: 42.

(57) Bizot also mentions the presence of a number of temples in Cambodia with names such as Vat Langka, Vat Po Langka, but does not think this necessarily implies an association with Sri Lanka (1992: 43).

(58) Bizot 1992: 43-44.

(59) ibid. 70.

(60) Bizot 1992: 42.

(61) The text is translated on pp.211-224.

(62) Translation pp. 227-268

(63).p.228.

(64) pp.244-5.

(65) pp.246-7. This parallels, for example, Vaisnava Hindu creation myths which subordinate the Puranic creator god Brahma to Vi~l.lu by having him create the world only after he himself has in turn emerged from Visnu. Seeing the Dhamma as the creative principle is completely alien to canonical Theravada Buddhism.

(66) p.247.

(67) pp.248-9.

(68) p.249.

(69) This identification is also found in Le Figuier (1976).

(70) p.256.

(71) p.260.

(72) Avant-propos, pp.l7-18.

(73) p.228.

(74) p.38.

(75) brah is an honorific used when referring to sacred objects or beings in Southeast Asia.

(76) p.41.

(77) p.42.

(78) pp.41-42.

(79) On which, see Bizot 1976, introduction, and Becchetti 1994.

(80) pp.42-44. The right hand path, left hand path distinction is also found in Saivism. There the left hand practices are those involving such antinomian practices as using the five impure substances, wine, meat, fish, parched grain and sexual intercourse. (See Mishra 1993: 365 ff. on the different interpretations of left hand/right hand from within and without the Saiva Kaula tradition). One could see the use of the terminology ‘left hand’ and ‘right hand’ as closely paralIel, if one regards using Buddhism for worldly gains, rather than for altruistic purposes or Nibbana, as essentially antinomian for Buddhists.

(81) For another list of the ingredients of such sacred substance used for making amulets and the method of empowerment in a central Thai monastery, see Terwiel 1979. The ingredients include the oldest manuscript of a temple.

(82) pp.44-45.

(83) sandhi, literalIy ‘placing together’, is the process of phonetic change in Sanskrit and Pali when certain phonemes fall together in a sentence. Traditional grammars such as that of Kaccayana analyse and lay down detailed rules for the phonetic changes that take place by explaining, e.g. that i may be substituted by y before a. Note that Bizot often translates compounds which appear to be in standard Pali in a way other than one would if they were such, because the tradition studied by him gives such terms specific meanings. The basic difference is that the Khmero-Pali reading of the compound is usually from the first member to the second, while the classical Pali reading usually takes the final member of the compound as primary and the earlier members of the compounds as qualifiers of it.

(84) pp.209-224.

(85) Tep Sarikaput 1967, Brah gambhir brah ved III, Bangkok-Thonbury 2510. Other works by venerable Sarikaput are listed in the bibliography to La Guirlande.

(86) pp.48-49. The corresponding right hand practice for soteriological purposes is found in, e.g. the Amatakaravannana. The left hand path applied to healing is found in Mettanando 1999.

(87) As far as I can see, the source and numeration used with Y is not explained.

(88) This last word is emended by Von Hinuber from the manuscripts, which read either hanta- or hamta-. I think the manuscript readings have to be correct here for the full syllable ham to be reproduced, regardless of the classical elision of the nasal in the formation of the past participle. However, my suggestion would also require anusvara in place of the homorganic nasal in hannate: hanmate.

(89) The establishment and sources for this text are not made explicit, but from the sigla D, E, F and G in the apparatus it appears that at least one of the Khmer manuscripts contains it, as do three of the Thai printed texts, two of which are by Sarikaput.

(90) pp. 209-224.

(91) The term used for this elision is iopa, the standard term in classical Sanskrit and Pali grammar for the elision of a phoneme in the process of word formation or euphonic combination (sandhi), on which see above.

(92) Note the depiction of characters from the story of Rlima in the production of tattoos also. See Bizot 1981b and Terwiel 1979.

(93) pp.209-210.

(94) 1996. See discussion below.

(95) For Bizot 1994b,see below.

(96) New series explained Avant-propos, p.ix.

(97) pp.353-358.

(98) pp. 19-25.

(99) p.47 note 1. It should be pointed out that this postdated king Rama IV’s reedition of the canon on the basis of texts from all over the Theravada world including Burma, northern Thailand and Sri Lanka.

(100) p.53.

(101) Bizot 1976.

(102) Bizot and Lagirarde 1996.

(103) Bizot 1976.

(104) Bizot 1988.

(105) pp.73-76.

(106) The name Trai Bhet derives from Tri Veda, the three Vedas or ‘knowledges’, possibly a reference to the Brahmanical Hindu sacred texts, although de Bemon is sceptical of this interpretation.

(107) Bizot 1994b.

(108) pp.125-127.

(109) 1996: 42.

(110) 1996: 45-46.

(111) 1996: 43.

(112) The relevant passage survives in Tibetan but not in Sanskrit, so is reconstructed by Pind. Bizot’s comment on p.49 that the Miilasarvastivadavinaya is preserved only in Tibetan and Chinese is misleading – it is also preserved in Sanskrit in a Gilgit manuscript, but not in its entirety.

(113) Bizot p.49, with reference to Brough 1962: 45-62

(114) Bizot 1996: 52.

(115) 1976: 43-44.

(116) Sources for these figures are listed as the German-Laotion project (no reference given) which focuses on temples mainly in the ‘central region’; ‘Ies recherches’ in the north and far north, presumably by the contributors themselves; and the programme for the preservation of northern Thai manuscripts at the ‘Centre pour la promotion des arts et de la culture’ at the Universisty of Chiang MaL

(117) Contamination is cross-referencing in the establishment of a text on the basis of more than one source by the scribal tradition itself In other words, when the tradition used a similar method of the comparison to that involved in establishing a modem critical edition, it is termed contamination.

(118) Bizot notes that a history of the reforms of Lao writing and orthography is in preparation by lames R. Chamerlain (p.87, footnote I).

(119) 1938, reprint 1996.

(120) Confusingly, the text identifies of the eight keys as the noble eightfold path, samatha, vipassana and bhavana.

(121) On the placing of Buddhas around the body, cf. the Mahadibbamanta, a Cambodian Theravada text mainly in Pali on the same theme, translated by laini 1965.

(122) Bizot 1996: 220.

(123) baddhasima – a term appropriated from the monastic context where it refers to a ritual boundary. Bizot explains this application of the term in the light of a the pan-S.E. Asian belief that the Buddhist monastery is a symbol of the body.

(124) In my view, this suggests a concern on the part of the tradition that produced this text regarding the level of scribal corruption in Pali manuscripts and a move towards trying to reassert Pali learning. This reminds me of the legend of the division into book-preserving and meditation-preserving monks in Sri Lanka in response to the feared loss of the word of the Buddha in the 1 century BCE. Here, the reverse, a combination of the two traditions, seems to be advocated.

(125) On the conflation of the Buddha’s disciple, Mahakaccayana with the grammarian Kaccayana, see below.

(126) Bizot and von HinOber 1994: 55-56.

(127) Crosby 1999.

(128) 1996: chapter 1.

(129) The tendency among some western scholars to see in this the influence of Protestant Christianity is misplaced in my view. While Rama IV did have contact with American missionaries, his drive for reform preceded this and was due to larger factors.

(130) 1997.

(131) Bizot 1996: 40 note 3.

(132) de Bernon 1996, my translation.

(133) Bizot discusses this problem with the example of A. Leclere in Bizot 1989: 14-15.

(134) E.g. Bizot and von HinOber 1994a, appendix 2, Mettanando 1999.

(135) Also not discussed in this essay, which primarily focuses on the yogavacara tradition, are Bizot 1970 and Bizot 1971.

(136) Carrithers, 1983: xi-xii, 233ff. and 246.

(137) Woodward 1916: xix.

(138) Gombrich and Obeyesekere 1988: 360. I am grateful to Richard Gombrich for pointing out the similarity between Jayasuriya’s practice and the yoglivacara tradition.

(139) I would like to thank Professor B. J. Terwiel, Hamburg University, who supervised the thesis, for his kindness in making it available to me.

(140) Mettanando 1999: 2.

(141) Mettanando op.cit. 5.

(142) These diagrams, which relate to the order and placing of meditation subjects within the body are also found in Sri Lankan manuscripts of the Amatakaravannana which teaches the same practices for soteriological purposes. They appear as circles either within other circles or in a pattern, e.g. as a set of five. The circles are then labelled with the kamma!!hana in question, such as the pm, or with sacred syllables, e.g. na mo bu ddha ya.

(143) Mettanando op.cit.: 8-10.

(144) See the discussion of yogavacara texts from Sri Lanka, below.

(145) Bizot 1992.

(146) Bechert in Bizot 1988.

(147) The Abhidhamma commentary is also attributed to Buddhaghosa, but this attribution is disputed.

(148) Cousins 1997: 193.

(149) 1994: 157.

(150) 1994: 237-240. Gethin briefly mentions the existence of a non-Mahaviharin tradition that is studied by Bizot (1998: 257).

(151) While it does not use Bizot’s material, Swearer 1995c is an admirable departure from the standard Sri Lankan-centred monolithic presentations of Theravada.

(152) See references to the views recorded by Carrithers above. Similar views· are also expressed elsewhere, e.g. by Wickremasinghe as quoted by Caroline Rhys Davids in her Preface to Woodward 1916. While the views of these authors are understandable given the state of our knowledge at the time of their writing, the view that the yogavacara material represents an artificial, isolated and insignificant expression of Theravada has been repeated to me verbally only last year by an established U.S. scholar of Theravada.

(153) I do not mean to suggest that there is a relationship between the yogavacara tradition and the system of upanisads (‘parallels’) in Brahmanical Hinduism. I see it as entirely possible that the similarity results from convergence. (When I use the terms ‘relationship’ and ‘convergence’, I do so in the sense in which they are applied in evolutionary theory).

(154) These abbreviations are listed here since they are often used in the publications reviewed above without any explanation being included in the volume in which they appear.

(155) For a fuller brief history see Bruguier 1996, from which these details are taken.

(156) de Beroon 1996 and Bizot 1992: 15-16.

(157) de Beroon 1996 and Bizot 1992: 16-17.

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