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Примечания к гл.7

Дэвидсон Р. М. «Индийский эзотерический буддизм: социальная история тантрического движения»
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1. *Ardhapancamagatha, To. 2278, fol. 132b4–b7: gdol pa dza zhes bya ba zhig gis | slob dpon chen po ku ku ri pa la brten te | don dam sems la dmigs pa’o | rdzogs pa’i rim pa phyogs gcig pa bsgoms pa las | chos thams cad brten med du zhen par ‘gyur ro | de nas yul dza lan dha rar | rims nad kyis mi phal cher tshe’i dus byas so | lo tog thams cad ser bas bcom mo | lo lngar char ma bab nas | bram ze gsang tshig mkhan la dris pa dang | sa phyogs ‘di ni mi nang pa sang rgyas pa gnas nas | phyi rol gyi grub mtha’ gsang bar smra ba la phyogs te gnas pas | bkra mi shis pa sna tshogs byung ste | ’jig rten ‘di la gzhan phung zhing | ma ‘ongs pa la rang phung bar byed do zhes pa dang | dpal ku ku ri pas thos te | gdol pa dza’i drung du byong nas smras pa |.

2. Siddhaikaviramahatantra, especially observable in the first two of the four chapters, pp. 1–14.

3. E.g., Vajravidaranadharanyekavirasadhana, To. 2926; Davidson 1992, pp. 123–124.

4. Davidson 2002b.

5. Hevajra Tantra, Snellgrove 1959, 1:127; Nispannayogavali, 1949, pp. 40–41, 14–15.

6. Nispannayogavali, 1949, pp. 43–44, 23; there is an expanded Buddhakapala mandala, in ibid., pp. 47, 30–31.

7. Ibid., pp. 42–43, 20–21.

8. Ibid., pp. 41–42, 52–53, 16–17, 40–41.

9. E.g., at Ratnagiri; Mitra 1981, 1:108–138.

10. Lalou 1936, pp. 332–335.

11. Hevajrasekaprkriya, Finot 1934, p. 24; the language here is reasonably close to that found in the Samksiptabhisekavidhi, Sakurai 1996, pp. 411–412.

12. Nispannayogavali, 1949, pp. 72–73, 75–76.

13. Vidyottama-mahatantra, To. 746, fols. 48a4–b6: de nas nam mkha’ la rgyu ba’i ma mo bdun gyis ca co dang ga zha’i sgra bton nas ‘khor de nyid du ‘dus par gyur te | ’khor ‘dus pa de dag thams cad la lan gsum bskor ba byas nas bcom ldan ‘das kyi zhabs la mgo bos phyag ‘tshal te bcom ldan ‘das la ‘di skad ces gsol to | bcom ldan ‘das bdag cag gis kyang byang chub sems dpa’ chen po lag na rdo rje la gsang sngags kyi shas ‘bul bar ‘tshal lo | de nas bcom ldan ‘das kyis ma mo de dag la ‘di skad ces bka’ stsal to | sring mo dag gang khyed sems can thams cad la phan pa’i phyir zhugs pa ni legs so legs so | de nas ma mo de dag gis tshigs mthun pa lag na rdo rje la ng sngags phul ba | na mo buddha ya | na mo badzra pa na ye | ma ha yaksa se na pa ta ye | tad ya tha | hu lu hu lu | la hu la hu | ha ha | tistha tistha | bhra ma bhra ma | bandha bandha | kha da kha da | ma tsa me kashcid bighnam ka ri shya te | mo ha ni mo ha ni | na ya ti na ya | mali ni bi shwe shwa re | a mo ghe na ma sba ha | rig sngags ‘di dran pa tsam gyis rig pa mchog sgrub pa’i rig sngags ‘chang de la bdag cag ma mo bdun gyis dpag tshad gcig gi bar du bsrung bar bgyi | yang dag par so sor bskyab par bgyi’o | rig sngags kyi las rnams ‘byung ste ras sar pa la sbyin dang ma ‘dres pa’i tshon rtsis lag na rdo rje mdog sngo bsangs la lo bcu drug lon pa’i sha gzugs can rgyan thams cad kyis brgyan pa ma mo bdun gyis bskor bar bri’o | ma mo bdun ni ‘jigs pa’i tshul du bsgrub par bya’o | de nas zhag gsum smyang ba byas te mar gyi ngo zhag bcu bzhi la ci nus kyi mchod pa byas te | chang dang sha’i gtor ma yang sbyin par bya’o | de nas rig sngag ‘chang gis ri mo’i sku gzugs kyi mdun du seng ldeng gi shing gis me sbar la yungs kar khrag gis bsgos pas lan brgya stong sbyin sreg byas te | de nas ri mo’i sku gzugs ‘gul bar mthong na rigs sngags ‘chang gis rig pa mchog dran par bya’o | bu med mche ba gtsigs pa yang ‘ong bar ‘gyur te des ‘jigs par mi bya bar sring mo khyod ‘ongs pa legs so | rdo rje ‘dzin gyis dam tshig byin pa gang yin pa de dran par gyis shig ces smros shig | de skad thos nas ca co’i sgra phyung ste de bzhin du bya’o zhes nas mi snang bar ‘gyur ro | de nas nyin gcig bzhin du ti na ra re sbyin par byed cing don thams cad sgrubs te rig sngags kyi dgnos grub kyang sbyin par byed do |.

14. Ibid., fols. 48b6–49b2.

15. Hevajra Tantra, Snellgrove 1959, II.v.29; cy. 2:153.

16. Kulke and Rothermund 1998, pp. 136–138; in this description, they are primarily concerned with the intimate connection of divinities to real princes.

17. Uddiyanasriyogayoginisvabhutasambhoga-smasanakalpa, To. 1744, passim; these names, their order, and almost everything about the directions assigned are anomalous. Cf. Samvarodaya-tantra, Tsuda 1974, XVII.36–45; treated by Tsuda 1990; I cannot agree with Tsuda’s understanding of the historical circumstances of this material.

18. Prajnaparamita-nayasatapancasatkatika, To. 2647, fols. 272b7–273b7.

19. Tatz 1987, 1988.

20. Tucci 1930.

21. Sahajasiddhi, To. 2260, fols. 1b1–4; Sahajasiddhi-paddhati, To. 2261, fols. 6a5–13b7.

22. There are actually three texts included in the Dam-pa sangs-rgyas collec- tion, the Zhi byed snyan rgyud zab byed ma (Aziz 1979), which feature fifty-four names, but all have multiple repetitions. Beyond the above text, I.235.1–242.5, probably the most Indic, there is the rNal ‘byor pho mo lnga bcu rtsa bzhi’i dgongs pa dril ba | lam dri am myed pa gser sgong dag pa’i skor (I.242.6–247.6), and the rNal ‘byor pho mo lnga bcu rtsa bzhi’i gdams pa yin | lam dri ma myed pa shel sgong dag pa’i skor (I.247.7–254.8). These latter two texts include the Tibetan translator Rin-chen bzang-po (!) as a siddha.

23. Tucci 1949, 1:227–230; Schmidt 1958, pp. 17–18.

24. This list is found in the manuscript that has been attributed the title of its first work, Yogavataradisamgraha; Nepal National Archives, trtiya 366–3, fols. 9b3–11a6. There is also a modern copy of this manuscript placed in the Asiatic Society, ms. G8060.

25. Kubjikamata-tantra, Goudriaan and Schoterman 1988, X.112–130; Rocher 1986, p. 229.

26. Rwa lo tsa ba’i rnam thar, p. 265; elsewhere in the same work, Rwa-lo en- counters eighty siddhas, pp. 230, 240.

27. Sharma 1965, pp. 86–87, 104–109, 176–188, 213–216, 264.

28. Wills 1919; Chhattisgarh used to be part of Madhya Pradesh, but became a separate state at the end of 2000.

29. Fleet 1883, p. 160, line 46; Sharma 1965 for a synthesis of this and other grants.

30. For a discussion of this locale, see Postel et al. 1985, pp. 28–31, 40–46, 93–97, 121–122, 302.

31. See A mes zhabs, Gsang ‘dus byung tshul, pp. 37.4–40.3, for his understand- ing of Buddhajnanapada’s system.

32. Abhisamayalamkaraloka, Vaidya 1960, p. 558.15.

33. The Dvikramatattvabhavana-mukhagama, To. 1853, fol. 2a2, seems to de- scribe Guneru (there written Gunenu) as a male teacher, so this is probably not a title. Otherwise, when Vitapada’s text indicates a teaching received, usually the verb thob pa is employed, so the exact significance of this phrase is unclear.

34. Sukusuma-nama-dvikramatattvabhavana-mukhagama-vrtti, To. 1866, fols. 89b4–90b5: de nas yul dbus las byang du dpag tshad nyis brgya sum cu’i phyogs na yon tan kun ‘byung zhes te mkha’ ‘gro mas byin gyis rlob pa phal cher de las ‘byung ba’i phyir | u rgyan gyi yul la bya’o | der bgrod nas de’i phyogs gcig nor bu’i gling du sku ‘khrungs pa’i phyag rgya chen po thob pa | dpal sna tshogs gzugs zhes kyang grags pa | slob dpon chen po ‘jo sgeg rdo rje zhes bya ba yod de | de la bya ba dang rnal ‘byor gyi rgyud mang du thos nas | ’bad pas rnam par dpyad pa yang byas so | yang gnas de nyid kyi phyogs gcig na bsam gyis mi khyab pa’i rim pa’i man ngag thob pa | rnal ‘byor ma chen mo de nyid brnyes pa gu ne ru zhes bya ba zhig gnas pa de’i drung du bgrod nas de mnyes par byas te | bla na med pa’i rgyud mang du thos par byas nas | ji skad du gsungs pa’i dam tshig dang dbang la sogs pas bla ma de’i lung thob nas gzod bsgom pa la zhugs so | lhas rmi lam du bstan pa u rgyan gyi gnas de yi byang phyogs kyi chab sgo na | gdol pa’i rigs dza thig dzwa la zhes bya ba la bu mo lo bcu drug lon pa zhig yod kyis | de ni rigs las skyes [90a] pa’i rnal ‘byor ma laksmi chen mo zhes bya ba yin gyis der song dang khyod kyi dgongs pa ‘grub par ‘gyur ro zhes pa dang | ’phral du song nas de dang bshes su ‘thams nas | zla ba brgyad kyi bar du mnyes par byas so | des kyang phyag rgya chen po la drod pa yin par rtogs nas | phra mo’i lung stsal ba tsam gyis dpal dzam bha la’i grub pa thob par gyur to | de nas yul dza lendhar zhes bya ba na grong khyer ka no dzer zhes bya ba yod de | de’i phyogs gcig na shes rab gtso bor byed pa’i rgyud la bsam pa chu klung lta bur gyur pa byis pa chung ba’i zhabs zhes bya ba’i drung du bgrod nas | de mnyes par byas nas de’i gzhung thos shing lung yang thob par byas te bsgom pa yang nan tan du byed do | de nas yul dbus nas lho phyogs su dpag tshad sum brgya yod pa na yul kongka na zhes bya ba yod de | de la nam mkha’i shing ldan zhes bya ste | ci’i phyir zhe na | rtsa ba med par shing rnams la ‘khril shing steng du kril pa lta bur gnas pa’o | yul de’i phyogs gcig na thabs gtso bor byed pa’i rgyud la dgongs pa chu klung chen po lta bur gyur pa skye ba gcig gis thogs pa grub pa’i dbyang phyug bsrung ba’i zhabs zhes bya ba gnas te | de yang rdzu ‘phrul dang ldan pa’i slob mas bskor ba’o | de dag kyang gang zhe na | bram ze tsa tra ra zhes bya ba dang | bram ze gu hya parta zhes bya ba dang | rgyal rigs manydzu shri zhes bya ba dang rje’u rigs purna bha dra zhes bya ba dang | dmangs rigs di pam ka ra zhes bya ba dang | dmangs rigs karna pu tra zhes bya ba dang | smad ‘tshong ma a lo ki zhes bya ba dang | smad ‘tshong ma sa du shi la zhes bya ba ste | de kun gyi yo byad dang gos zas ni lha mo nor gyi rgyun zhes bya ba des nyi ma re re zhing gser gyis ma sha bcu dang mu tig gi ha ra phyed dang karsa pana sum brgya sbyor ro | bla ma dam pa de’i drung du lo dgu’i bar du ‘dud cing skye ba gcig gis thogs par byas so | ’dus pa’i rgyud chen zhes pa la sogs pa ni bla ma’i dgongs pa ste | de la ‘dus pa’i rgyud ni rnal ‘gyor rnams so | de’i ‘grel pa ni rnal ‘byor bslab pa sme sha can gyi bu mo bi ma la mu dri’o | de dang bcas par bco brgyad bar du mnyan [90b] pa ni zla ba bco brgyad kyi bar du bsgrub pa’o | bdag gis ma rtogs pa zhes ba ni rtogs pa’i dba’ rlabs ma ‘phros pa’o | bla ma chen pos kyang bdag gis kyang ma rtogs zhes gsungs pa dang | thugs cung zad chad nas ‘di ma rtogs par gzhan ni don med do par bsams nas | rang gi phyag rgya ‘dus pa’i glegs bam du byas nas mgul du btags nas de las byang phyogs su bgrod de | rdo rje gdan gyi rgyab na ku ba tsa zhes bya ba’i tshal yod de der phyin pa’o | de yi dgongs pa ni byang chub kyi sny- ing po las kha phyir bltas pa’i sems can rnams kyi nang na bdag gnas te | de na ‘dod chags la sogs pa’i stag dang dred la sogs pa mang zhing shin tu ‘jigs pa’i sa ste | bdag de las thar par ‘dod pa’i phyir der zla ba drug bskul ba dang bcas pa’i bsgrub pas gnas pa’i chos rnams kyi de bzhin nyid rtogs so zhes so | ji ltar rtogs she na | sprul pa’i dge slong zhes pa la sogs pa’o | de yang rdo rje ‘dzin pa chen pos sprul pa’i dge slong byi ba’i sham thabs can chos gos las thod byas pa gcig zhing rmo zhing gnas pa dang | bla ma gnyis te bu chung dang ldan pa’i bud med ngan pa dang | khyi mo dkar ba mtshan ma can no | de rnams dang phrad ba las rtogs pa’i rlabs mi mnga’ bas bla mas de rnams la ma khrel to |.

I have emended rtsa ba med par shing rnams la ‘khris shing steng du bris pa, to rtsa ba med par shing rnams la ‘khril shing steng du kril pa; kha and ba, sa and la are quite similar in manuscripts and easily confused.

35. Dvikramatattvabhavana-mukhagama, To. 1853, fol. 16a4, describes it as 50 krosa, with the krosa normally four to the yojana; however, in Sukusuma-nama- dvikramatattvabhavana-mukhagama-vrtti, To. 1866, fol. 135a2, Vitapada translates this into six yojana and two krosa, so that we would understand eight krosa to the yojana.

36. Sukusuma-nama-dvikramatattvabhavana-mukhagama-vrtti, To. 1866, fol. 135a5–6.

37. RajataraNgini III.11–12. The sixth-century chronology represented here ap- pears faulty, and other evidence points to an eighth century date for this monastery; see chapter 3, n. 105.

38. See Gonda 1961 and Parry 1985.

39. Mirashi 1976, pp. xlvii, 6–8.

40. Manjusrinamasamgiti, Davidson 1981, p. 18, n. 52, for references on this issue.

41. Sukusuma-nama-dvikramatattvabhavana-mukhagama-vrtti, To. 1866, fol. 135b3–4: gtam rgyud rgyas par shes byas nas | zhes pa ni bla ma chen po’i gtam rgyud rgyas pa na lendra ‘dul ba dang | rdo rje gdan gyi mchod pa byas pa dang | rab tu gnas pa byas pa la sogs pa’i lo rgyus kyis skal ba dang ldan pa cher dad par byas nas | des kyang rang gi ‘dod pa’i gzhung la mkhas pa ni bla ma ste |.

42. Mar pa lo tsa’i rnam thar, p. 84; Nalanda Translation Committee 1982, p. 85.

43. This date is variously interpreted as 1040 or 1041; the sources are rNam thar rgyas pa, Eimer 1979, §§ 231–232; Deb ther sngon po, 1984, 1:303, and Roerich 1949, 1:247.

44. rNal ‘byor byang chub seng ge’i dris lan, SKB III.277.4.5–278.2.2: nag tsho lo tsa ba’i zhal nas | nga btsun chung gcig gis jo bo spyan ‘dren du phyin tsa na | jo bo ma ga dhar stabs kas lo gcig ‘gor bar byung nas | jo bo na ro pa snyan pa che bas zhal blta ba la ‘gro snyam ste | ma ga dha nas zla ba gcig shar lhor phyin pa na | phulla ha ri zhes bya ba’i gtsug lag khang na jo bo bzhugs zhes thos te de blta bar phyin pas nga bsod nams che bar byung ste | sleb pa’i nyin par jo bo la rgyal phran zhig phyag ‘tshal ba yin zer nas phyin pas khri chen po zhig brtsigs nas ‘dug pa’i rtsar bsdad | de nas khrom tham cad ‘ur langs nas | jo bo byon kyin ‘dug zer te bltas pas | jo bo sku bongs che ba | dbu skra dkar ba las thal nas | dmar sang nge ba sindhu ra’i thod bcings pa | mi bzhi tsam gyis bteg nas go la mur gin byon pa mthong | zhabs la ‘ju | gsung thos pa[r] bya snyam tsa na | dbang che ches phar phar phul nas tha mar bton | der jo bo’i zhal ni mthong | gsung ni ma thos |.

45. Snellgrove 1987, 1:160–170.

46. The layout of the ganacakra mandala provided in Wallace 2001 is a classic example of an idealized form that would be virtually impossible to reproduce (p. 127). It calls for several kinds of tribals, foreigners, and outcastes in its makeup, many of which are seldom found in the same place in medieval India.

47. The text has las mkhan, for which I can find no attested Sanskrit equiva- lent; Samvarodaya-tantra, Tsuda 1974, VIII.23, appears to identify this offical as a karmavajrin.

48. Sarvabuddhasamayoga-ganavidhi, To. 1672, fols. 195b3–196a4: bsod nams ye shes tshogs rdzogs pas | kun ldan tshogs kyi ‘khor lo yi | rigs kyi bkod pa so so’i gnas | phun sum tshogs par bstan pa’am | yang na bde ba’i gnas dag tu | skyed mos tshal la sogs par bsgrub | mar ngo’i brgyad dang bcu bzhi dang | yar ngo’i brgyad dang bcu mtshams gnyis | der ni dang po gdan bshams te | ’jam zhing reg na bde ‘gyur ba’i | sna tshogs padma ras kyis g.yogs | de ni thams cad dag pa’i gdan | sangs rgyas kun gyi dam tshig dpal | rdo rje sems dpa’i snang ba bde | de bzhin gshegs pa’i pho brang mchog | rin chen rgyan la sogs pas spras | dril bu rgyal mtshan mchog ldan pa’i | bla re dam pa bres pa na | rdo rje tshig dang mchog la sogs | glu dang sil snyan rnam par ‘phrul | me tog bdug pa’i sbyor ba dang | mar me dri la sogs ldan par | sangs rgyas thams cad mnyam sbyor ba’i | mkha’ ‘gru sgyu ma bde mchog bsgrub | slob dpon mgon la legs zhus nas | phun sum tshogs pa’i rjes ‘jug cing | sangs rgyas brda dang ldan pa yis | me tog thogs te ‘gro la bskul | rnal ‘gyor pho mo thams cad kun | dga’ zhing dang ba’i sems bcas kyis | do nub bdag gi gnas dag tu | tshogs kyi cho ga mdzad par gsol | e ma bu ni snying rje che | gal te lag pa’i phreng ston na | ’du bar bya zhes smra ba yin | phreng ba mngon par btang byas nas | dam tshig la gnas brtul zhugs bzang | dpa’ bo gzhan don spyod pa’o | de nas nub mo ‘dus pa dang | phyi nas ‘dag chal dri chab chus | khrus byas me tog gis brgyan cing | rnal ‘byor dag chos sngags kyis sbyang | de nas nang gi khrus byas te

| sngags kyi bsrungs shing byin brlabs nas | dam tshig tshogs rnams bskang gso zhing | rim bzhin nang du ‘gro bar bya | dam tshig brda sogs brtag pa’i phyir | khro bo’i rgyan sngon las mkhan gnyis | rig pa’i sngags brjod thob ‘dzin | bsrung ba’i don phyir sgo ‘gram gnyis | kye khro rgyal rgyan sngon dag gis mdzes | dam tshig rnam par spyod pa po | dngos grub rin chen dbyug to ‘dzin | dpa’ bo dpa’ mo ‘du bar mdzod | mkha’ mdzes rnal ‘byor ma dkyil du | dam pa’i mtshan ldan bdag thong shig | om ma ha sa ya hum | su ra ta stam |.

49. Ibid., fol. 196b4: ‘di la rnam rtog yod ma yin | bram ze khyi dang gdol pa rnams | rang bzhin gcig pas lhan cig bza’ |.

50. Ibid., fol. 197a2–3: de dag la ni snying ring nas | snying nas khrag chen ‘thungs pa yin | bdag gi ngo bo yongs spangs shing | dka’ thub kyis ni gzir mi bya | ci bde bar ni bde bar spyad | ’di ni phyi dus sangs rgyas yin | rnal ‘byor longs spy- od thams cad la | cis kyang mi ‘jigs dga’ bar gyis |

51. On these terms, see Samvarodaya-tantra, VIII.7.

52. Kularnava, Vidyaratna 1917, VIII.96–111. The practice is not mentioned in the earlier Kulacudamani; see Finn 1986, pp. 74–147.

53. Bühnemann has accepted the eleventh to the fifteenth centuries as the date of the Kularnava’s composition (1992, p. 62). Gupta et al. (1979, p. 155) take the Kularnava as paradigmatic for this practice; cf. Bharati 1965, pp. 257–261.

54. E.g., Sharma 1996, p. 105.

55. See Elwin 1947, pp. 269–325, for a somewhat dated assessment of this institution.

56.Ibid.; and Gell 1992; cf. Vitebsky 1992, pp. 48–49, and Boal 1982, pp. 20–22. 57.

57. Elwin 1947, pp. 326–332, and Gell 1992, p. 64.

58. Kalikapurana, XLI.17–23.

59. A corrupt version of the Sanskrit of this list is found in the Mulapattayah Sthulapattayah in the Advayavajrasamgraha, Shastri 1927, p. 13; among the many problems in the text, gotraguna (l. 5) should read gotragana, jane pak.se (l. 7) should be jane ‘pakse, and ista- (l. 8) should be dusta. I have relied of the various short texts covering these twenty-two, collectively To. 2478–2488, especially the Va- jrayanamulapattitika-margapradipa, To. 2488, of Manjusrikirti. This text is provid- ed with an incomplete title both on the title page and in the Tohoku catalogue, but on fol. 231b6 the text is titled: rdo rje theg pa’i rtsa ba’i ltung ba’i rgya cher ‘grel pa lam gyi sgron ma zhes bya ba.

69. Pancakrama, II.80–81; as noted in Mimaki and Tomabechi 1994, this ma- terial is also found quoted in the Subhasita-Samgraha, 1903–4, p. 386.

61. Cf. Hevajra Tantra, II.viii.2–5.

62. Cf. *Vajrayanacaturdasamulapattitika, To. 2485, fol. 184a7–b2; *Vajrayanamu- lapattitika, To. 2486, fol.189a3–b1; Vajrayanamulapattitika-margapradipa, To. 2488, fols. 219a6–b1. Cf. Guhyasiddhi, pp. 50–59.

63. Cf. *Vajrayanacaturdasamulapattitika, To. 2485, fol. 184a3–5; *Vajrayanamu- lapattitika, To. 2486, fol. 188b6–189a3; Vajrayanamulapattitika-margapradipa, To. 2488, fol. 218a5–b1.

64. *Pancadasapatti, To. 2480; another such list is a list of seven, Yan lag gi nyes pa bdun pa, To. 2481; without a commentary, though, its meaning is unclear and the text appears unreliable.

65. Vidyavrata is the topic of chapters 7 and 8 of Padmavajra’s Guhyasiddhi, Rinpoche and Dwivedi 1987, pp. 50–57. While sexual activity with a consort is its fundamental feature, it encompasses a wider series of activities, including partici- pation in the tantric feast.

66. Vajrayanamulapattitika-margapradipa, To. 2488, fols. 221b7–222a5: spyod pa de yang rnam pa bzhi ste las dang po pas kun tu bzang po’i spyod pa bya bar gsungs te | rgyud gzhan las kun du bzang po’i spyod pa gnas skabs gzhan du yang bstan te dgongs pa gzhan no | cung cad brtan pa thob nas rig pa’i brtul zhugs kyi spyod pa ste | sngags spyod kyis zla ba drug la sogs par bya bar gshad do | brtan pa thob pa rnams kyis mgon po kun du spyod pa la gnas par bya’o zhes bshad pa’i rgyud chen po las bshad do | . . . ‘dir rnal ‘byor gyi lam rnam pa gnyis su shes par bya ste | rnal ‘byor la brten pa dang | thabs kyi dam tshigs la brten pa’o | kha cig dam tshig la brten nas rnal ‘byor gyis grol ba yang yod | kha cig rnal ‘byor la brten nas dam tshig gis grol ba yang yod |.

67. rGyud kyi mngon par rtogs pa rin po che’i ljon shing, SKB, III.48.1.4–49.4.5.

68. Sandhivyakarana-tantra, To. 444, fol. 161b3–7: gsang ba’i bdag po mkhas rnams kyis | tshul mchog ‘di ni rnyed gyur nas | don gsal yang dag rnyed pa dang | de yang nga rgyal dag tu ltung | de rnams ting ‘dzin zhi nyid dang | shes rab nyid kyang shin tu ring | rab tu dga’ dang ldan pa yis | rnal ‘byor pa ni bdag nyid ces | mngon pa’i nga rgyal la rtag dga’ | sgyu dang bcos ma’i chos dang ldan | mya ngan ‘das dang gzhan ‘gro ba | phan tshun dag ni sun yang ‘byin | gsang sngags smra ba la brten nas | gcig la gcig ni rtsod par ‘gyur | de rnams bdud kyi byin brlabs kyis | gal te dngos grub phra thob na | des ni mngon par rang (sic for nga) rgyal bas | mkhas pa nyam du shes par ‘gyur | tshogs pa’i nang du rtsod pa dang | khyi bzhin kha zas la spyod ‘gyur | rang las ‘bras las byung ba yi | phan pa la ni gnod pa byed | de rnams dge dang mi dge rnams | bdag cag rnams kyi stobs yin zer | mngon sum sangs rgyas ‘dra ba yi | slob dpon smod cing bsnyen bkur med | skad cig gcig gis sdang byed cing | de la skad cig gis rjes chags | khyi dang phag dang khwa rnams kyi | spyod pa dag ni ston par byed |.

69. One text dedicated to this description is the He ru ka’i rnam par dag pa, To. 1481, attributed to Sraddhakaravarman.

70. While I have emphasized the Sahajasiddhi, other examples of a criticism of esoteric conduct are found in works attributed to Virupa, especially his Virupadacau- rasi, To. 2283, his Dohakosa, To. 2280, and his Sunisprapancatattvopadesa, To. 2020.

71. Sahajasiddhi, To. 2260, fols. 2a4–2b2:

la la bdag ni lhan cig skyes | kha cig rmongs pas dbang phyug ste | bdag bcas ma yin bdag med pa | rtog pa gnyis ni spangs pa nyid | de ni zung ‘jug go ‘phang du | rgyal bas lhan cig skyes par gsungs | de nyid srog chags rnams kyi srog | de nyid mchog tu mi ‘gyur ba | de nyid kun la khyab pa yi | lus kun la ni rnam par gnas | bud med byis pa ba lang rdzi | kla klo dang ni rigs ngan dang | chu yi nang gnas sems can dang | lha dang gnod sbyin klur bcas pa’i | de rnams lhan cig skyes mi shes | ’gro ba’i grong khyer dag tu ‘khyam |

72. Ibid., fols. 3a1–4:

kha cig dngos grub dbang gnyis skyes | byis pa yun ring rgan sogs kyis | ‘bad pa yis ni thob mi ‘gyur | rgyu dang bcas pa’i skad cig ma | ’khrul dang rnam par ‘khrul ‘dra ma | kha cig longs spyod rdzogs pa’i gzhung | de ni lhan cig skyes brjod min | lte ba’i dbus su ‘khor lo mchog | de dbus gzi brjid gzugs can ni | sgrub pa po yis rtag bsgoms pa | de ni lhan cig skyes brjod min | spyi bor gnas pa’i ‘khor lo che | de la reg dang bde ba ‘bab | bya ba’i rab tu sbyor bas ‘thob | de ni lhan cig skyes brjod min | srog gi rlung ni ‘gog pa ru | ’bad pa yis ni gang zhig byed | sna yi rtse mor rab gzhug bya | de ‘gog pa yis gang thob pa | de ni lhan cig skys brjod min | thur sel rlung ni ‘gog pa yis | lus ni gdung ba byas nas su | yang nas yang du goms par byed | de ni lhan cig skyes mi brjod |

73. Vidyottama-maha-tantra, To. 746, fols. 12b4–13a1: de nas lag na rdo rje’i mdun du bzlas brjod bgyis te seng ge’i sgra ‘byin gyi bar du bgyi’o | seng ge’i sgra thos nas lha ma yin gyi bu mo rnams ‘byung ste de dag la ‘dod pa bskyed par ma bgyi’o | gal te ‘dod pa bskyed na seng ge ni ma mchis so | lha ma yin gyi bu rnams ni mchis te lha ma yin gyi bu rnams kyang yongs su spyad par ‘gyur ro | gal te de dag la ‘dod pa ma bskyed na seng ger ‘gyur te | seng ge la zhen na rig sngags ‘chang gi bu mo brgyad cu ‘byung ngo | rig sngags ‘chang bzhi stong yang g.yog ‘khor du ‘gyur ro | gang du ‘dod pa der mchi’o | rig sngags ‘chang gi ‘khor los sgyur bar ‘gyur ro | ’khor lo la sogs pa’i spyod yul du mi ‘gyur ro | gang gi tshe rdo rje dang ‘khor lo dang mdung rtse gsum pa dang be con dang | zhags pa dang | mdung thung dang dbyug to rnams mchi ba de’i tshe seng ges seng ga’i sgra ‘byin te seng ge’i sgras mtshon pa thams cad dpag tshad brgyad khrir mchi’o | rig sngags ‘chang gi rgyal po gang dag seng ge’i sgra thos pa de dag tham cad sa la lhung ngo | mtshon cha de dag thams cad kyang dbang du ‘gyur ro | bskal par gnas pa’i rig sngags ‘chang gi rgyal por ‘gyur ro |.

74. Guhyasamaja-tantra, XII.51: vicaret samantatah siddho gaNgavalukasarvatah | sarvesu samayagresu vidyadharaprabhur bhavet ||. I am relying on the Pradipody- otana, Chakravarti 1984, p. 113, for the interpretation of the first half of the verse.

75. Catuhpitha-mahayogini-tantraraja, fol. 27a2.

76. Guhyasamaja, XVI.88: antarddhanadisamsiddhau bhaved vajradharah prab- huh | yaksarajadisamsiddhau bhaved vidyadharah prabhuh |. Cf. Pradipodyotana, Chakravarti 1984, p. 199.

77. Cf. Guhyasamaja, IX, passim; especially pp. 105, 111.

78. Ibid., XVIII.67–71.

79. Cf. Guhyasamaja, XII.9–16.

80. Vidyottama-maha-tantra, fol. 48b2.

81. Bhutadamara, fols. 238a3–7

82. Ibid., fol. 249b2–3; cf. Sandhivyakarana, fol. 194b5.

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